Better Chess For Better Life

小波尔加从小是如何成长的呢?

这是一张旧照片,也是小波尔加最喜欢的一张照片。
照片中都是世界顶级的国际象棋棋手、世界冠军!
仅有的一位女性,小波尔加!
她自豪的说,喜欢这张照片的原因是因为
照片里面的冠军们,她都曾经打败过!
都曾是她的手下败将!
这是一位杰出的女棋手
誓要打破整个国际象棋界男性统治的宣言!
拉斯洛.波尔加在教育上的投入最终获得了回报,每个女儿都对国际象棋抱有浓厚的兴趣,并且在幼年时期就展露出很强的潜力。不过这样也只是培养出了三个优秀的国际象棋棋手,拉斯洛.波尔加在教给女儿国际象棋这个工具的同时,还传给了她们三人一个伟大的使命,正是这个使命最终让“波尔三姐妹”不仅仅成为一段佳话,而被称为一个传说。
这个使命,我们一般叫做“性别的偏见。”

在上个世纪80年代左右,其实没有多远,无非是几十年前,当有不了解国际象棋的记者采访著名的国际象棋棋手时,当然是男棋手。经常会问到这样一个问题,怎么看待下棋下的好的女棋手。一半的人这样回答:难道这不是一个男人的游戏吗?另一半人会一边笑着一边说:好像有一些女棋手,只不过在最高水平的比赛中见不到。
在过去的三十多年里,或许随着女权主义的发展,女性和国际象棋应该已经改变了许多。但你想错了。
到2015年5月,世界排名前100的国际象棋选手中只有两位是女性。美国国际象棋协会在网站上宣称,它的八万五千名会员“绝大多数都是男性”。世界国际象棋联合会特级大师列表的“性别”一栏,就像技术峰会上男女厕所前排起的队伍长度一样失衡:1479位国际特级大师中,只有31位是女性。下象棋的女性都去哪儿了?

无论原因为何,300多年来,社会一直都在重复着同样的观念:女性不适合下棋,而且女性天生就不擅长下棋。
在1897年,《美国象棋杂志》的一篇文章写道,女性的棋赛中充满了“不合逻辑的失误”,并猜测原因可能是女性佩戴的铁丝发夹。1906年,《拉斯克象棋杂志》解释道,女性象棋大师的阙如,是女性缺乏“专注力、全局观、客观性,以及,最重要的是,缺乏原创性”的自然结果。
1964年,《象棋世界》的春季刊登载了一篇题为《女性棋手的自然劣势》的文章。美国特级大师博比•菲舍尔(Bobby Fischer)对女性在象棋方面的劣势有许多自己的理论,其中最著名的是这一条:“她们都很弱,所有女人都是。她们比男人笨。她们就不应该下棋。她们就像初学者一样。”
这是从一个由姐姐获得象棋启蒙的男人嘴里说出来的。需要注意,这里的博比•菲舍尔就是那个菲舍尔,日后被称为美国的传奇英雄,被无数的棋艺爱好者奉为传说的天才。显然他没有因为自己对女性的偏见言论得到惩罚,即使到现在为止,女子世界冠军能获得的奖励中还包含一条:她可以获得“男子国际特级大师”的称号,这个称号只是对在一流国际比赛中获得好成绩的男性给予的一种认证,至少有几千个男性都可以拿到这样的称号。
之前在一些野史中还有过记载下棋很不错的女性,但是自从十七世纪初开始女性突然从国际象棋中消失了。
亚洛姆猜测,这可能是游戏规则的改变导致的:王后和主教先前只是走法有限的弱子,现在却能横扫棋盘、控制全局。国际象棋从领主和夫人们的休闲游戏,变成了街头巷尾的激烈竞技。因此,国际象棋被视为一项不符合女性身份的活动。也有部分专家论证过,国际象棋对意志力、体力、冷静思考以及某些需要很强的理性控制的方面有着极高的要求,所以女性可以下的还不错,但是通常到不了真正的巅峰。

我猜如果是30年前,他们这句话会说成“绝对到不了真正的巅峰”,不过正是因为后来出现了几个“反例”,这些伟大的女性让那些自以为是的男人无法忽视她们。
其中最为出色的就是“波尔加三姐妹”中的小妹,朱迪特•波尔加。只需说一条她曾做到的成绩,小波尔加在辉煌的职业生涯中击败过10位棋王,包括现役世界冠军、挪威神童马格努斯•卡尔森。她击败的世界冠军还有:卡尔波夫、卡斯帕罗夫、斯帕斯基、斯梅斯洛夫、托帕洛夫、阿南德、波洛马廖夫、哈利夫曼和卡西姆扎诺夫。

226 thoughts on “5/7伟大的使命感,让孩子走得更远!丨波尔加成长故事七部曲

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