有一种棋,一旦你接触它,你会立即爱上它,爱不释手,甚至会产生一种相见恨晚的感觉,你会被它的行棋理念所深深折服,它像一块砥砺意志的磨刀石,让你变得聪明睿智。——这就是国际象棋。

历史上许多对人类社会作出巨大贡献的伟人,都是国际象棋的爱好者。马克思、恩格斯深夜下棋的故事,早已传为佳话。列宁还是一个高明的棋手,是革命同志中间的“特级大师”,他说:国际象棋是智慧的体操。法国著名学者、哲学家卢梭、俄罗斯画家列宾、在电学上有巨大贡献的富兰克林、诺贝尔奖金获得者居里夫人、元素周期表的发明者门捷列夫等历史名人都是国际象棋的爱好者。门捷列夫的《元素周期表》手稿的最后一页,人们惊奇地发现其背面有作者用铅笔记下的一个国际象棋残局。

德国大诗人歌德曾把国际象棋称作“人类智慧的试金石”。俄罗斯大诗人普希金曾经充满热情地说道:“对每一个幸福美满的家庭来说,国际象棋是必不可少的。”列夫·托尔斯泰说:“青少年时代下国际象棋,可以锻炼思维、增强记忆力和培养坚强的意志;中年时期下国际象棋,是一种快乐和美学的享受;到了老年,下国际象棋则是一种最好的休息。”

在我国,国际象棋开展得蓬蓬勃勃如火如荼,许多高手不但在国内家喻户晓,而且享誉世界:1991年秋,中国女棋手谢军在菲律宾首都马尼拉战胜保持世界冠军头衔达13年之久的格鲁吉亚棋手齐布尔达尼泽成为中国第一个女子国际象棋世界冠军,也是国际象棋史上第一位欧洲以外的国际象棋女子世界冠军。其后,中国女子前赴后继,勇夺桂冠,她们分别是:

1991~1996谢军中国
1999~2001谢军中国
2001~2004诸宸中国
2006~2008许昱华中国
2010~2012侯逸凡中国
2013~2015侯逸凡中国
2016~2017侯逸凡中国
2017谭中怡中国

中国男子国际象棋棋手也成绩骄人:中国国际象棋的元老刘文哲,被誉为“棋坛神童”卜祥志,第一位国际象棋特级大师叶荣光,中国男子国际象棋队总教练叶江川,还有今年差点夺得冠军的丁立人等都是中国国际象棋界的骄傲。

事实已经证明:下国际象棋不但不会影响学习,反而还能提高学习成绩。棋坛高手一致认为:聪明的孩子爱下棋,下棋的孩子更聪明。

国家教育部教体艺司函[2001]7号文件指出:“围棋、国际象棋、象棋”三项棋类活动具有教育、竞技、文化交流和娱乐功能,在学校积极倡导“围棋、国际象棋、象棋”三项棋类活动,有利于青少年学生个性的塑造和美德的培养,有利于培养学生独立解决问题的思维能力、操作能力,有利于提高学生的文化素养。”

棋类运动是一项智力游戏与脑力体操,具有很高的教育潜力和教育价值,其教育功能独特的科学功效不亚于音乐,艺术或诗歌等任何一项智力活动。它不但是竞技、教育、科学、艺术、娱乐五者有机结合的结晶,而且还是融这神奇的五大功能于一体的一项健康有益的体育文化活动,是一门具有个性完美的艺术。棋类运动在国内外体育、教育、文化界被称为“智慧的体操”、“人类智慧的磨刀石”。因此,将棋类教学活动纳入学校课堂体系,科学的与学校正规教育实际相结合的棋类教育,不仅可以开发中小学生的智力因素,有利于学生健康个性的塑造和良好美德的培养,有利于培养学生独立分析与解决问题的思维能力、操作能力,有利于提高学生的文化素养。同时通过普及和开展棋类教学活动,还可以增强与促进中小学生对棋类教学活动的兴趣和爱好,传承棋艺文化,为中华民族的棋类事业奠定人才基础。

那么国际象棋为什么具有这么大的魔力呢?

其一,国际象棋棋子是立体棋子,其形象栩栩如生、惟妙惟肖,很容易吸引儿童的注意力。

其二,国际象棋的兵在历尽千辛万苦后达到对方底线,可以升变为威力最大的皇后,瞬间使敌我双方的力量发生天翻地覆的变化,所以国际象棋的兵会不惜一切代价,奋勇前进,直捣黄龙,得到至高无上的奖励,它激励棋手为了实现胜利,冲锋陷阵,排除万难,不达目的决不罢休。而中国象棋的兵到达对方次底线后,便不愿继续前进,因为一旦到达底线,就蜕变“老卒”,几乎没有任何价值了。

其三,国际象棋中的棋子几乎都是清一色的进攻性棋子,每一个力量都会令对手胆寒,连国王在残局阶段也会冲锋陷阵,势不可挡。而中国象棋里,士、象和将都是防御性的棋子,即使士象全,也不能左右胜利的天平。

其四,国际象棋中的斜线子力比较多,像国王、皇后、教士和小兵,它们都能斜着行动,青少年在少年时,会格外注意斜线方面进攻与防守,这对培养青少年的思维的广度是大有裨益的。而中国象棋在这方面远不如国际象棋。

其五,国际象棋中,王可以行走在棋盘任何一个地方,双象可以控制棋盘的每个角落,威力无比。而中国象棋的将帅士只能在九宫里逡巡徘徊,活动空间极其有限。

其六,国际象棋的马没蹩腿的限制,它可以封闭的环境里跳跃自如,没有人为地给马“使绊子”。而中国象棋里的马的活动就受到蹩马腿的限制。

总之,国际象棋所传达的理念就是:

1、不想当元帅的士兵不是好士兵;

2、为了胜利,勇往直前;

3、人人都能获得成功,哪怕你是一个小兵;

4、战场上没有怯阵者,哪怕你是国王;

5、每个人都通向成功的勇士,不管你是国王还是小兵;

6、没有人给你前进的道路上使“绊马索”;

7在这个战场上,必须眼观六路,高瞻远瞩;

8必须睿智地处理一切情况。

190 thoughts on “国际象棋:一把启智魔杖,陶醉着你,受益着你

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